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16 April 2019

PRATHMIK SHALA MATE UPYOGI RAMAT GAMAT NI BOOK

PRATHMIK SHALA MATE UPYOGI RAMAT GAMAT NI BOOK
MITRO AA MODULE JUNU CHHE...PAN TENI ANDAR BATAVEL RAMATO AAJE PAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS MA BALAKO NE RAMADVA MA AAVECHHE...

I HOPE IT WILL BE HELPFUL TO U IN YOUR CLASSROOM...
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              A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool.Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more of an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be (such as professional players of spectator sports or games) or art (such as jigsaw puzzles or games involving an artistic layout such as Mahjong, solitaire, or some video games).Games are sometimes played purely for entertainment, sometimes for achievement or reward as well. They can be played alone, in teams, or online; by amateurs or by professionals The players have a audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Often, part of the entertainment for children playing a game is deciding who is their audience and who is a player.

Key factors of games are goals, rules, challenge, and interaction. Games usually involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform a educational, simulational, or psychological role.Attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known games.


          Games are often classified by the components required to play them (e.g. miniatures, a ball, cards, a board and pieces, or a computer). In places where the use of leather is well-established, the ball has been a popular sport piece throughout the history, resulting in a worldwide popularity of ball games such as rugby, basketball, soccer (football), cricket, tennis, and volleyball. Other tools are more specific Many countries in Europe, for instance, have unique standard decks of playing cards. Other games such as chess may be traced primarily through the development and evolution of its game pieces.Many games are tokens, meaning to represent other things A token may be a pawn on a board, play money, or an intangible item such as a point scored.

Games such as hide-and-seek or tag do not use any obvious tool; Instead, their interactivity is defined by the environment Games with the same or similar rules For example, hide-and-seek in a school building differs from the same game in a park; an auto race can be radically different depending on the track or street course

Rules and aims
Whereas games are often characterized by their tools, they are often defined by their rules. While rules are subject to variations and changes, For instance, baseball can be played with "real" baseballs or with wiffleballs. However, if the players decide to play with only three bases, they are arguably playing a different game. There are exceptions to this in some of the games, but even then there are often immutable meta-rules.Rules generally determine the time-keeping system, the rights and responsibilities of the players, and each player's goals. Player rights may include when they spend resources or move tokens

     The rules of a game are to be distinguished from its aims. For most competitive games, the ultimate 'aim' is winning: in this sense, checkmate is the aim of chess. Common win conditions are to be amassed in a certain quota of points or tokens (as in Setlers of Catan), having the greatest number of tokens at the end of the game (as in Monopoly), or some of their relationships with the game's tokens of one's opponent (as in chess's checkmate). However, when we talk about the aim of a game, we also refer to the intermediate aims: the things that you have to do in the game. For instance, an intermediate goal is to score goals in goals, because scoring goals will increase your game (but is not alone enough to win the game).

      Aims are not just a 'special' kind of rules: the difference between the rules and a game is a fundamental one. Some examples. The aim of chess is to checkmate, but although it is expected that players will try to checkmate each other, it is not a rule of chess that a player should checkmate the other player whenever he can (as a matter of fact, unskilled players often fail to take it Similarly, it is not a rule of football that a player must score a goal if he shoots a penalty (it is only expected, and not required, that he will try). On a common level, the differences between the rules and the aims of a game can be characterized as follows: a aim identifies a sufficient condition for successful action, whereas the rule identifies a necessary condition for permissible action. While meeting the aims often requires a certain degree of skill and (in some cases) luck, following rules only a knowledge of the rules and some of them follow the careful attempt; it rarely (if ever) requires luck or demanding skills.

Sports
Association football is a popular sport
Many sports require special equipment and dedicated playgrounds, leading to the involvement of a community A city or town may set aside such resources

Popular sports may have been entertained by just by watching games. A community will often align itself with a local sports team that supposedly represents it (even if the team or most of its players only recently moved in); They often align themselves against their opponents or have traditional rivalries The concept of Fans.Certain competitive sports, such as racing and gymnastics, are not games by definitions, such as Crawford's (see above) - despite the inclusion of many in the Olympic Games - because competitors have their opponents with interacting; They simply challenge each other in indirect ways

Board use as a central tool a board on which players' status, resources, and progress are tracked using physical tokens. Many also include dice or cards Most games that are simulate war are board games (though a large number of video games have been created to simulate strategic combat), and the board may be a map on which players' tokens move. "Turn-based" play; one player contemplates and then makes a move, then the next player does the same, and a player can only turn on their turn. This is opposed to "real-time" play as is found in some card games, most sports and most video games.

Some games, such as chess and go, are entirely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for their interest. Such games are usually described as "perfect information"; The only unknown is the process of an opponent, not the result of any unknown event inherent in the game (such as a card draw or die roll). Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very luck-based, with games such as Candy Land and Chutes and Ladders being virtually no decisions to be made. By some definitions, such as that by Greg Costikyan, they are not games since there are no decisions to make which result the outcome. Many other games involving direct attacks between opponents; The random event simply determines a gain or loss in the current player in the game, which is independent of any other player; the "game" then is actually a "race" by definitions such as Crawford's.

Most other board games combine strategy and luck factors; The game of backgammon requires the best strategic move based on the roll of two dice. The trivia games have a great deal of randomness. German-style board games are not worth mentioning

Board Games
Board games groups include race games, roll-and-move games, abstract strategy games, word games, and wargames, as well as trivia and other elements. Some board games fall into multiple groups or incorporates elements of other genres: Cranium is a popular example, where players must be successful in each of the four skills: artistry, live performance, trivia, and language.Board use as a central tool a board on which players' status, resources, and progress are tracked using physical tokens. Many also include dice or cards Most games that are simulate war are board games (though a large number of video games have been created to simulate strategic combat), and the board may be a map on which players' tokens move. "Turn-based" play; one player contemplates and then makes a move, then the next player does the same, and a player can only turn on their turn. This is opposed to "real-time" play as is found in some card games, most sports and most video games.

Some games, such as chess and go, are entirely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for their interest. Such games are usually described as "perfect information"; The only unknown is the process of an opponent, not the result of any unknown event inherent in the game (such as a card draw or die roll). Children's games, on the other hand, tend to be very luck-based, with games such as Candy Land and Chutes and Ladders being virtually no decisions to be made. By some definitions, such as that by Greg Costikyan, they are not games since there are no decisions to make which result the outcome. Many other games involving direct attacks between opponents; The random event simply determines a gain or loss in the current player in the game, which is independent of any other player; the "game" then is actually a "race" by definitions such as Crawford's.Most other board games combine strategy and luck factors; The game of backgammon requires the best strategic move based on the roll of two dice. The trivia games have a great deal of randomness. German-style board games are not worth mentioning

Board games groups include race games, roll-and-move games, abstract strategy games, word games, and wargames, as well as trivia and other elements. Some board games fall into multiple groups or incorporates elements of other genres: Cranium is a popular example, where players must be successful in each of the four skills: artistry, live performance, trivia, and language.

Pencil and paper games
Pencil and paper games require little or no specialized equipment other than writing materials, though some such games have been commercialized as board games (Scrabble, for instance, is based on the idea of a crossword puzzle, and tic-tac-toe sets with a boxed grid and pieces are available commercially). These games vary widely, from games centering on a design being drawn such as Pictionary and "connect-the-dots" games like sprouts, to letter and word games such as Boggle and Scattergories, to solitaire and logic puzzle games such as Sudoku and crossword puzzles.

Guessing games
Main article: Guessing game
A guessing game has as its core a piece of information that one player knows, and the object is to coerce others into guessing that piece of information without actually divulging it in text or spoken word. Charades is probably the most well-known game of this type, and has spawned numerous commercial variants that involve differing rules on the type of communication to be given, such as Catch Phrase, Taboo, Pictionary, and similar. The genre also includes many game shows such as Win, Lose or Draw, Password and $25,000 Pyramid.
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Video games
Video games are computer- or microprocessor-controlled games. Computers can create virtual spaces for a wide variety of game types. Some video games simulate conventional game objects like cards or dice, while others can simulate environs either grounded in reality or fantastical in design, each with its own set of rules or goals.A computer or video game uses one or more input devices, typically a button/joystick combination (on arcade games); a keyboard, mouse or trackball (computer games); or a controller or a motion sensitive tool (console games). More esoteric devices such as paddle controllers have also been used for input.

There are many genres of video game; the first commercial video game, Pong, was a simple simulation of table tennis. As processing power increased, new genres such as adventure and action games were developed that involved a player guiding a character from a third person perspective through a series of obstacles. This "real-time" element cannot be easily reproduced by a board game, which is generally limited to "turn-based" strategy; this advantage allows video games to simulate situations such as combat more realistically. Additionally, the playing of a video game does not require the same physical skill, strength or danger as a real-world representation of the game, and can provide either very realistic, exaggerated or impossible physics, allowing for elements of a fantastical nature, games involving physical violence, or simulations of sports. Lastly, a computer can, with varying degrees of success, simulate one or more human opponents in traditional table games such as chess, leading to simulations of such games that can be played by a single player.

In more open-ended computer simulations, also known as sandbox-style games, the game provides a virtual environment in which the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of this universe. Sometimes, there is a lack of goals or opposition, which has stirred some debate on whether these should be considered "games" or "toys". (Crawford specifically mentions Will Wright's SimCity as an example of a toy.

MITRO AA MODULE JUNU CHHE...PAN TENI ANDAR BATAVEL RAMATO AAJE PAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS MA BALAKO NE RAMADVA MA AAVECHHE...

I HOPE IT WILL BE HELPFUL TO U IN YOUR CLASSROOM...
AA MODULE MA KUL 40 JUDI JUDI RAMATO AAPEL CHE JE CLASSROOM MA PAN RAMADI SHAKAY TEVI CHHE..

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